A Crag Guide gives an extensive view of all sub areas and climbs at a point in the index. It shows a snapshot of the index heirachy, up to 300 climbs (or areas) on a single web page. It shows selected comments climbers have made on a recently submitted ascent.

At a minor crag level this should be suitable for printing and taking with you on a climbing trip as an adjunct to your guidebook.

This guide was generated anonymously. Login to show your logged ascents against each route.


Rock climbing is extremely dangerous and can result in serious injury or death. Users acting on any information directly or indirectly available from this site do so at their own risk.

This guide is compiled from a community of users and is presented without verification that the information is accurate or complete and is subject to system errors. By using this guide you acknowledge that the material described in this document is extremely dangerous, and that the content may be misleading or wrong. In particular there may be misdescriptions of routes, incorrectly drawn topo lines, incorrect difficulty ratings or incorrect or missing protection ratings. This includes both errors from the content and system errors.

Nobody has checked this particlular guide so you cannot rely on it's accuracy like you would a store bought guide.

You should not depend on any information gleaned from this guide for your personal safety.

You must keep this warning with the guide. For more information refer to our Usage policy


Thanks to the following people who have contributed to this crag guide:


The size of a person's name reflects their Crag Karma, which is their level of contribution. You can help contribute to your local crag by adding descriptions, photos, topos and more.

Some content has been provided under license from: © Australian Climbing Association Queensland (Creative Commons, Attribution, Share-Alike 2.5 AU)

Table of contents

1. Omega Block Area 166 routes in Crag

Boulder, Trad and other styles

Long/Lat: 144.595893, -37.369529

Description:© (willmonks)

The main area


Go through the town of Mt Macedon and continue for about 3km up C322. Turn LEFT at the signpost to the Mt Macedon memorial cross (C328).

About 500m in on this road there is a car park and information sign; park here.

Walk along the track that starts at the western end of the car park. A couple meters down, take the right fork (marked "Emergency Track Only"). Follow this track past a few choss piles (some of which are bolted) until you see a track heading up the hill on the right.

OMEGA BLOCK is about 60m up the hill and the LOWER TIER is 30m straight ahead.

1.1. Privy Block 23 routes in Crag

Boulder, Trad and Sport

Long/Lat: 144.595555, -37.369827


Coming along the track toward Omega Block, this is the first buttress of any substance. This buttress has some less-than-good routes, now some great new sport routes (on front of buttress) and some excellent bouldering. The fallen tree has recently disintegrated exposing a couple of previously lost problems. Note - all older existing routes are shown under crag title 'Gully behind Omega Block', these will be deleted.

Access Issues:

Coming along the track toward Omega Block, this is the first buttress of any substance. It is located right beside track.


Follow the track on the WEST side of the car park. Twenty metres down, follow the "Emergency Only" track. Keep walking about 200 meters and you'll pass by the buttress.


Older exiting routes put up mostly in the 90's with originals (Straining Rail) going back to the 60's. Crag dragged kicking and screaming into current Camels era by the locals looking to disperse the crowds and to get more pitches in mid week!

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 Southside

Starts south side (underneath) The Hull. Stand start on edges on lip (and/or poor underlings) of the hull and establish feet with difficulty. Steeply up a couple of moves (awesome heel/hand match) to join TH. The slab on left is obviously out (but makes for an ok VE).

Boulder Project
2 The Half South

Start RH on low lip, LH on juggy pocket (old tick) ie all except hard first move of Southside. Up into the Hull.

V5 Boulder
3 The Hull

Start as Babylon but head left below small overlap to climb the underside of 'the hull'. Finish at monster jug up right after left hand flake jug. Slab on left out.

V4 Boulder
4 Babylon

The hanging gardens of... Stand start on juggy hanging flake 3m Left of SR. Ascend jugs into mossy hanging corner. Stop when bored, filthy, soaking or scared. The jug horn up right is an obvious target.

V1 Boulder
5 Under Strain

Eliminate climbing the underside of the Straining Rail. No knee bars and no left hand use of flake (including the giant jug). Hard

V9 Boulder
6 Over Strained

Stand start with right hand only on the flake jug on Straining Rail. As per under strain no left hand use of the jug or flake making for a tricky sequence to finish up left.

V5 Boulder
7 Standing Strain

Stand start with both hands on jug on Straining Rail. Finish as per that problem.

V3 Boulder
8 Straining Rail Extension

Same grade much more climbing... Really fun. Climb SR then easily left on jugs to cool sequence down into hanging corner and jugs on Babylon/The Hull. Move left to finish up the long moves of The Hull. Careful not to choke the last couple of moves!

V7 Boulder 9m
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
9 *** The Straining Rail

Sit start at base of slopey rail, head up and left. Don't forget to use your knees....hint, hint.

V7 Boulder
10 * Humpty Dumpty

Starting on the sloppy rail. Span to the right and finish via right facing horn to jug, dyno to jug or up left facing flake. All worthwhile.

FA: Nick Sutter

V8 Boulder 3m
11 The Long Road Home

Shoulder demolition factory! Climb HD into Positive Ape.

V9 Boulder
12 Permanent Psych

'Elevator door' stand start with the HD gaston right hand and left on the opposing gaston crimp. Technical moves up left trending flake to jug (horn and jug on right are out). From jug traverse left to finish as for SR using that problems undercling flake jug.

V5 Boulder
13 Positive Ape

As for PP but jug on flake and jug in roof all out. Huge move or diabolic horizontal cross through. Both pretty tough. Watch the landing!

V7 Boulder
14 Unknown 2

Stand start on the somewhat loose-ish block. Head straight up. Very easy moves between jugs. If the block/fridge comes free and you are under it you will be removed with a spatula and a bucket! Can be climbed from ground level at V2/3.

V0+ Boulder
15 Training the Untrainable

Ungrade-able horror (probably about 15 in the old scale!). Start the trench at ground level and butterfly jam, weep, rock gently in the corner towards the sunlight.

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
16 * Tough Love

Line of ring bolts (x 4) on left side of nose, front of buttress. STICK CLIP FIRST BOLT Start in middle of undercut bulge (as for No Schmecking and Here Come the Bastards), boulder out left (crux) to stance on sloping shelf, up keeping (more or less) on left of nose, up short slab to lower off.

FA: @sholloway,Amanda Holloway, 5th Feb

23 Sport 12m, 4
17 No Schmecking

Original description taken from VCC North West VIC guide. Start 3m right of Chain on the nose of the blank buttress. POOR PRO. Past fixed wire (you might call it that?!) left and up to ledge. Straight up wall delicately above. SHAKY PRO. New bolted routes (Tough Love and Here Come the Bastards) make this route pretty much obsolete, retro bolt with full permission from M.Law.

FA: Mike Law, Steve Howde

21 Trad 20m
18 * Here Come the Bastards

Start in middle of undercut bulge, front of buttress (same as for Tough Love and No Schmecking). STICK CLIP FIRST BOLT. Bouldery start straight up over bulge, (look for big pockets on right) to dynamic move to jug on left, stance on ledge then straight up the slab with fantastic incuts and pockets. Same lower off as for Tough Love. Enjoy.

FA: @sholloway,Amanda Holloway, 5th Feb

22 Sport 12m, 3
19 Tyranny and Mutation

Climb the short slab into the crack.

FA: Michael Woodrow and Co., 1992

18 Trad
20 Dominance and Submission

Climb the short overhang and then head upwards.

FA: Michael Woodrow and Co.

21 Trad
21 ** Lip Traverse

Traverse (Left to Right) the overhanging lip from a sit start. Hardest at the start.

V5 Boulder
22 ** Pocket Pulling Perfect

Long rising traverse starting on next tier above the V5 (access via juggy moss slab). Hard move or two starting on obvious low hold on nose, a bit dicky traversing above the chockstone then perfect pockets right for 5m to a go for it finish up the hung Arete. Really good rock!

V3 Boulder 10m
23 The 50degree V1

No seriously, it is at least 50deg and probably easier than V1! Around right if PPP start on lowest jugs in cave, get back just off rising ground behind and surf the miss and jugs to victory.

V1 Boulder 3m

1.2. The Hanging Wave 2 routes in Unknown

All Boulder

About 30m uphill between Privvy Block and Break Like the Wind. Obvious boulder with wave shaped overhang on left hand side. A couple of exposed warm ups.

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 * The Hanging Wave

Quite good. Sit start at obvious jug in face and make long move to lip. Up to mantle jugs making sure not to fall down the gully!

V1 Boulder 2m
2 The Nose

Easy, barely worthwhile and definitely best not fallen off... but if you're in the area! Start lying downhill on slab under nose (the crux?!) and left hand on obvious jug. Pull on, long move to lip and move around right face to mantle on jugs.

V1 Boulder 2m

1.3. Break like the wind 15 routes in Cliff

Boulder, Trad and Sport

Long/Lat: 144.595689, -37.369676


This buttress/block has short sports climbs and high boulder problems.


This is next buttress/block along the walking track from Privy Block. This is also where the trail splits; one trail heading up the hill to Omega Block and another trail heading down toward the Lower Tier.

Descent Notes:

Lower off above Low Life!.

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 * Steel-plated Beanie

Sit start. Head straight up the middle of the wall to topout on jugs. Is easily protectable with a spotter on the rock, or, a steel-plated beanie.

FA: @mikeyhitchcock, 2014

V3 Boulder 5m
2 Nightshade

A hard sit start with low undercling and crimp. If you can reach the good holds near lip from sit start then V4. From lip a few slopy moves to gain rib immediately right of tree and up to finish on jugs.

FA: @andycrow

V5 Boulder
3 Beginnings

Sit start on opposing side pulls (left crimp and right arete). Head up, toping out on jugs bigger than your mother's.

FA: @mikeyhitchcock, 2014

V3 Boulder 7m
4 Break Like the Wind

Climb the flake.

Start left of arete and up face

FA: M Lama, H Singh-Dodd, R Pannell, 1992

12 Trad 8m
5 Scenester

The left arête, 1FH plus trad stuff to lower-off.

Start just right of Break Like the Wind. Starts off small block directly below arete, directly up left arete on small holds past FH (crux) to pocket and jugs to intermittent crack. Lower off above Low Life!

FA: Steve Holloway, Paul Geil, 2014

18 Mixed 8m, 1
6 * Low Life!

The middle of the face, 2 FHs to lower-off.

On front face of small pinnacle right beside walking track before track goes uphill to Omega Block. Starts of sharp flake / jug in middle of face, straight up on small crimps and mono pocket past 2 x fixed hangers.

FA: Steve Holloway, Paul Geil, 2014

21 Sport 8m, 2
7 Arete

Low sit start at Arete between LL and TR using RH layaway jug. Up to jugs on Arete. Sane people will jump off before they get too involved in the jungle above!

V3 Boulder 3m
8 ** The Radness

Cos its rad! Sit start with awesome crimp rail and undercling or low pocket. Climb the line of pockets, slimps and crimps (jugs out left of arete out) to match jug crack up right. Probably V7 if you use big foot jug. Stand start goes at around V4/5 depending on what holds you use.

FA: Unknown

V8 Boulder
9 ** The Big Footed Rad Koala

Probably the way to do it. The Radness using foot jug then right into Release The Koalas. Very easy to spill the second last move!

V8 Boulder 9m
10 The Rad Koala

Climb V8 version of the Radness (V8 if you do big foot/V7 version of TR) until R hand on finish jug. Technical sequence right to join Koala at the seam. Finish up that lines crux. Fairly long problem.

V9 Boulder
11 Koala Link

Start matched on finishing jugs of the Radness. Sequency traverse right to gain the seam at start of RTK. Finish as for that problem. Essentially a longer start.

V6 Boulder 5m
12 Lichen Spawn

Sit start with undercling and crimp. Head straight up the green runnel.

FA: Rob Cotton, 2015

V3 Boulder 5m
13 ** Release the koalas

Sit start with RH undercling and LH crimp. Make a challenging deadpoint into the seam out left before continuing up through some hugging and barndooring.

FA: @mikeyhitchcock, 2015

V6 Boulder 5m
14 The Green Room

I love Mikes work, but Icall bullshit and am renaming the route... Partly because this is a cooler name and partly because V1 has to be a radar grading! If give it V4 if it wasn't that I know I'm crap at upside down trenches. Sit start on jugs at back of cave. Traverse out using endless trickery and mantle to the right.

FA: Unknown

V3 Boulder 4m
15 Funnel Logic

Caving! Crux is staying off back wall which is only ever inches away! Behind the start of the green room is a 40degree funnel. Start lying in slab, pull in and contort way out to the light via jugs.

V1 Boulder

1.4. FernHill 16 routes in Cliff

All Boulder

3 blocks 50m downhill from the track below Break Like The Wind. Several good problems on downhill side of the largest to be written up and a couple of good steep lines on north facing arete.


A pad leads down from BLTW and will become more established if used.


All problems likely done by Martin Lama and crew in the 90s of not before.

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 * NE Prow

Very low sit start on right facing jug at same level as NAs start jug and left hand on awkward jug feature... NOT the undercling above. A couple of powerful boxy moves via RH jug into LH underclings (crux) then longer moves by good flat tops lurking amongst the lichen. Good.

V4 Boulder 3m
2 North Arete

Sit start on obvious giant jug. Couple of steep moves on jugs then top out the lichen crusted rib (will be better if someone wants to clean the top out)

V2 Boulder 3m
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
3 Outside Edge

Stand start on obvious square cut right facing layaways at left end of face. Big move up left to jugs over pillow, then mantle. Don't step off until you're hands free.

V2 Boulder 3m
4 Outside Edge Sit Start

Sit start with both hands on obvious low layaway jug. A couple of tech/power moves (edges to right are out but probably just make it harder anyway!) to gain layaway flake on stand start.

V4 Boulder 3m
5 The Dying of the Light Derivation

Ultra low start to OTFD with LH on obvious low layaway and RH on ear below start edges of OTFD. 2 hard moves to gain OTFDs start, finishing as for OTF, GSFP2 or Migration.

V6 Boulder 4m
6 * Out Too Far Direct

Sit start just left of OTFs flake using edges. Stand start goes at V3.

V5 Boulder
7 *** Migration

V4R/V5... Who knows. Bloody good though! As for OTF to its flake then continue left via scoop (sharp edges) to mantle off left. The detached block jugs are out.

V4 R Boulder 6m
8 ** Glimmer Sparkle Fade Part II

Outrageous finish to Migration finishing direct above the scoop using a series of thin layaways and edges. Jugs left of scoop are out. High proud and probably not a good place to let go. Can be approached from Out Too Far Direct SS at same grade or DOTLD at V6.

V5 R Boulder 6m
9 ** Out Too Far

Start at jugs as for Sound of... but instead continue left after first sequence to gain obvious line of LH lay aways. Could feel a little lonely up there without a spot but gets easier the higher you go.

V4 Boulder 4m
10 Sound of one hand clapping

Sit start on obvious jugs just right of small corner. Up left to gain corner and layaway/gaston to top (which needs a sweep).

V3 Boulder 3m
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
11 ** Flick the Switch

The crew reckon the start has to be a 6. Hard sit start at face between SOOHC and SOOHS with good LH layaway and low RH undercling/layaway. Tough moves to gain edges on lip and cool easy mantle.

V6 Boulder 3m
12 ** The Standing Switch

Really good variant that avoids desperate first move on FTS. Stand start with LH on layaway as for FTS and RH on good but weirdly shaped edge/ear at shoulder height. Up via layaway, excellent edges and slopey top.

V3 Boulder 3m
13 *** The Great Migration

Outstanding! Adds 4m of V6 to Migration. Start up TCOIA then left via edges on FTS to join Migration via excellent technical sequence. Lip of Boulder and jugs on detached block are out.

V6 Boulder 8m
14 The Core of it All

Coretastic sit start direct under prow (again, stacking to LH layaway jug is out or about V2). Up via opposing side pulls to interesting mantle.

V4 Boulder 3m
15 The Sound of One Hand Slapping

Micro problem starting just right of prow with good RH layaway/undercling and LH on choice of slimps (V1 if you can reach good LH layaway up high). Hard single move to lip then easy mantle.

V4 Boulder
16 Pop Tarts

Start on LH layaway jug. Pop crux to obvious RH jug and mantle finish.

V2 Boulder 2m

1.5. Lower Tier 42 routes in Cliff

Trad, Sport and other styles

Long/Lat: 144.595924, -37.369244


Follow the "Emergency Only" Trail west from the car park. When the Omega Block trail branches off up hill, continue straight for another 40m to reach the right side of Lower Tier. Routes are listed from the far end (Leaky Bucket area) to the end closest to the car park (Oxbow area).

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 Limbo 10 Trad 78m
2 Limbo Direct Finish 11 Unknown 30m
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
3 Open Project

Start at base of wall and traverse up and right to finish as per "Four Digits"

Boulder Project
4 Gotta start somewhere

Sit start with side pull and crimp, head up to opposing gaston and top out.

FA: @andycrow, 10th Feb

V1 Boulder Project
5 Leaky Bucket

Stand start on crimpy dishes, big move to giant jug, then two committing sloper moves to top out. You can sit start the problem at the same grade.

FA: @jimmy_stephens, 2009

V2 Boulder 4m
6 Four digits

Sit start with opposing side pulls; one on arete and one on face. Head straight up.

FA: Rocot, 2015

V3 Boulder 4m
7 Arete

Sit start the arete with high crimp and left side pull. Don't use the chockstone to the right. Fun but contrived.

FA: @mikeyhitchcock, 2015

V2 Boulder 4m
8 Crouching Michael, Praying Mantle

Climb the chockstone. From good jugs, campus between good holds to mantle. Some might call this a bad landing and uninspiring moves... they would be right.

FA: @mikeyhitchcock, 2015

V3 Boulder 2m
9 A Soft Touch

Named because of the furry handholds! Starts 2m left of Grey Arete at the foot of the slab. Up right leading crack to overlap. Step up left onto slab below overhang. Up ramp to break overhang on the right almost joining Grey Arête before heading up and left to ledge.

FA: Rupert Freeman, Jerry Kupfer, 2002

12 Trad 25m
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
10 * Grey Arete

good beginner trad lead

10 Trad 32m
11 Biker Mice From Mars

Contrived. Up the wall between Grey Arete and Slut's Honour, placing gear on the left. At the ledge go directly over the ledge on the right where the boulder rests. Up right of the slab to the top.

FA: @wonderdog,Anthony Bishop, Julian Keane, 1994

18 Unknown 32m
12 * Slut's Honour

Starts just right of 'Grey Arete'. Has recently had additional bolts added. There is some natural pro for extra protection.

21 Sport 17m, 4
13 Slut's Alliance

Good link up. Original climbed SH to its fourth bolt then right (crux) to join Green Alliance below overlap. Several recent ascents have gained the overlap at undercling and traversed right to GA which provides great climbing at 23.

FA: 2004

24 Sport 18m, 6
14 The Green Alliance

Thin up green face direct. Still goes despite some exfoliation though some have suggested it may be pushing 26.

25 Sport 15m
15 Sluts Have No Honour

Up the wall then moving right and up at the crux. One my first attempt to lead it I got crossed up while eye-balling the chains and fell. The top bolt (an unnecessary bolt IMO) wasn't there then and I took a big arc down to my belayer (Anthony Bishop). Whilst I was flushing out the adrenaline Matthew Brooks rapped down and bolted the fun out of it.n Got it easy second try...

FA: Michael Woodrow and Anthony Bishop

21 Sport 15m
16 A Dose of the Politicians 15 Trad 25m
17 Return of the Fush 9 Trad 20m
18 Silent Assassin / The Silent Assasin

Start as for 'Unprofessional Conduct', moving up past a BR and RB to chains.

22 Sport 20m, 2
19 * Unprofessional Conduct

Start as for 'Silent Assassin' at the base of the rib, but trend slightly rightwards. Up through cracks/groove to chains on left. May be run out.

21 Trad 20m
20 * Underseige

Originally started off the same ledge as 'No Joy', but has had a direct start added. Up the wall passing a bolt to break (gear), then up past three more bolts to chains.

23 Sport 12m, 4
21 No Joy 18 Trad 20m
22 Keystones / Wall R of No Joy

Scramble up to start, 2m right of 'No Joy'. Two bolts to chain.

FA: Peter Stebbins, Matthew Brooks, 1991

17 to 18 Sport 10m, 2
23 Blind Sox

Up Blind Justice to slab, across R into corner, then R to the arete (not great pro till towards the top of the arete), up atete to top of State of Shock. Belay from DBR on State of Shock.

15 Trad 30m
24 * No Joy- State Of Shock link up 20 Unknown 20m
25 State of Shock

up chimney/crack to fused corner protected by ring bolt to rap station

Start: just left of poxbow under obvious corner

20 Mixed 25m, 2
26 Blind Justice

Pro is spaced, a fall before the small slot (small cam, medium nut) would probably be a grounder. Did this onsite, covered in moss in damp conditions. Matty Brooks came in a week or 2 later and cleaned it up and added a bolt or 2 and claimed it. Nice of him to tidy it up for me!

FA: Michael Woodrow and Ian Campbell

16 R Mixed 40m, 2
27 * Poxbow 17 Trad 30m
28 Sox Glo 16 Trad 29m
29 Split Images Variant

Appears to start up 'Split Images', cross through 'Law Enforcer' through the overlap and finishing up 'Poxbow' variant?

21 Mixed 20m, 3
30 * Split Images

Starts up the front of the rib, with gear before the first bolt. After the second bolt, step right around the arete then up the pocketed wall

16 Mixed 20m, 2
31 ** Law Enforcer

Right of Split Images, starts in the gully of Oxbow. Straight up to RB, then follow Slit Images using its 2 RBs to the overhang. Clip the RB above the lip and move left under the overhang and pull awkwardly into Poxbow. Then into the overhanging headwall using flakes and finish on the Poxbow ledge.

FA: Matthew Brooks, Daniel Brooks, 1991

19 Mixed 20m, 4
32 Oxbow

Pitch lengths are definitely inflated

Start: Up chimney just right of 'Sox Glo' and 'Poxbow'

  1. 33m (6)

  2. 33m (6)

  3. 33m (6)

  4. 30m (6) Crux pitch!

6 Trad 130m 4
33 Dummy bidder

Poorly pro down low. Shallow open corner 3m R of oxbow. Up corner to step R onto arête at where cracks converge. Up to just below blocky overhang. Step right onto juggy arête and up to the top

8 Trad 20m
34 Spit the dummy

Good first lead, well pro on good rock. Juggy rib 5m R of oxbow. Just left of narrow gully/crack. Follow rib just just under overhang. Join onto dummy bidder to finish stepping R

5 Trad 20m
35 * One Hump or Two 12 Trad 75m 3

1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall 7 routes in Unknown

Mostly Trad

Undercut orange/red wall 30m left of Limbo (about 100m left of Grey Arete). Four interwoven routes established by the axis of Brooks/Lama in the noughties but tragically abandoned to the moss thereafter. Rebolted in 2016 this will clean up to be a fantastic morning crag enjoying sun from dawn until mid afternoon.

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 The Unknown

A minor addition. Start below 3rd bolt on My Only Wish. Boulder through bulge then clip last FH on Into Oblivion, following that to its conclusion (wires/cams).

19 Mixed 12m, 2
2 My Only Wish

Let's leave it at 25 and see what people think... And try not to fall off at end of crux which could be bad for your ankles. Contrived but fun climbing up underside of arête of red wall left of limbo. Start at rightmost RB them left past 4 more to chain anchor. Stay below lip throughout. At last bolt avoid the temptation to follow holds up right and make a few more moves up overhung left face (crux) to mantle.

25 Sport 15m, 5
3 Corrosion of Conformity

Previously described as run out this is probably still the best way to finish IO. Start as for MOW, out to 3rd FH on COC and up. Small/mid size wires and cams 0.75-2.

22 Mixed 18m, 3
4 Into Oblivion My Only Wish

Up IO, clip 2nd FH with long sling then truck left below the lip as per MOW.

25 Mixed 20m, 7
5 ** Red Dawn

Best climb on the wall? Links up all the good stuff and avoids the contrived finish of MOW to give a really quality pumper. Add superb morning sun and brand new rings and this should be a great crag warm up. Start at IO, clip second FH with an extender, left under the lip as for MOW to last bolt. Instead of staying left gain sloper and follow obvious line of holds straight up to easier finish.

23 Mixed 18m, 7
6 * Into Oblivion

Start below FH and shallow corner 2m right of MOW. A few moves up this then diagonally left past 3 FH then medium wires 0.75-2 cams to chain. Re-bolted 2016 but needs further cleaning. Can be finished direct above 3rd bolt as for COC.

22 Mixed 20m, 4
7 ** The Oblivion of Conformity

Quality link up.

22 Mixed 18m, 3

1.6. Outcrop below Black Magic 3 routes in Cliff

All Trad

Long/Lat: 144.596030, -37.369587


As for Witch (Omega Block). Walk down the cliffline from Boogie until you are directly below Black Magic

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 Heat Seeker

Up to cave as for YW, but continue direct up a groove past a BR.

Start: Start as for YW.

FA: Matt Brooks, Chris Yeomans, 1991

21 Trad 15m
2 Young Warriors

Groove to cave, R to chimney and up it. Swing L out of chimney beneath loose blocks over roof/arete, then up face.

Start: Start below and a bit L of chimney.

FA: Matt Brooks, Daniel Brooks, Peter Stebbins, 1991

20 Trad 16m
3 War Front

Looks dirty.

Start: Start to the R of the chimney.

FA: Matt Brooks, Daniel Brooks, Peter Stebbins, 1991

18 Trad 15m

1.7. Omega Block 57 routes in Cliff

Sport, Trad and Unknown

Long/Lat: 144.596172, -37.369510


Routes from Hawker to Broomstick start from an uneven ledgy area above an 8-10m lower clifflet. Several people have stuffed up and taken the plummet. Take care, and stick clip 1st bolts.

Descent Notes:

Most routes have lower-offs, otherwise scramble carefully down the back of the block (about 15m R of Witch).

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 Hawker

Rarely done but looks ok.

Start: Start 5m L of WR.

FA: Bruno Zielke, Fred Langenhorst, 1968

7 Trad 15m
2 Size Matters

Start as for "Good Things" and climb direct past 2FH. Move left to "Wee Ripper" anchors.

FA: Ian Boorman, 2013

18 Sport 8m, 3
3 Good Things Come in Small Packages

Start at obvious jugs from platform down left of Wee Riper. Somewhat usurped by LM but worthwhile. Adds 4m to Wee Ripper. Thin moves Diagonally past RB bring jugs on WR to hand. Finish up the original. Start at obvious jugs from platform down left of Wee Riper

FA: Mark Atkinson, Mark Rewi, 2012

18 Sport 12m, 3
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
4 Wee Ripper

Like most short routes, a little tricky for the grade.

Start: Start 2m L of 'Powder Hound', off the top of the block.

FA: Joy Fletcher. 1990s?, 1982

17 Sport 12m, 2
5 An Evil Brew


Start as for 'Powder Hound'. Up short wall past a bolt to anchor above 'Wee Ripper'.

FA: Matt Brooks, Daniel Brooks, 1990

20 Mixed 12m, 1
6 * Powder Hound

Surprisingly good climbing for a traverse! A great way to sample territory which is otherwise reserved for much harder routes.

Start: Start 1.5m L of 'Black Magic'. Up wall for 3m then diag R across Black Magic to Bloodline, up this for 2m then diag R to diagonal crack. Up crack and go R around bulges. Up a little to horizontal break which leads R to final blunt arete. Probably all bolts once you hit Bloodline.

FA: Mike Law,Chris Baxter. Early 80s?, 1982

21 Trad 30m
7 Black Magic

This grungy flared crack/chimney is quite incongruous amongst all the neighbouring sport routes!

Start: It's the obvious R-curving crack on the left side of the main 'Omega' face.

FA: Calvin Ho, 1968

15 R Trad 20m
8 * Lola V

Might see a few ascents now that it's sprouted some hardware. Start 1.5m L of 'Bloodline', 1.5m R of 'Black Magic'. After the third FH step right into Bloodline and up to double rings, or an even better option is to step R again to join the LH of Satan past it's last bolt.

FA: Mike Law,early 80s?, 1982

22 Sport 15m, 4
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
9 * Bloodline

If you thought the 3 retrobolts would make the original grade of 22 a bit inflated, think again! This is one very tough unit, even with bolts every 2 metres. You don't want to stuff up the first few clips either. Lets give it the grade it deserves!

Start: There's a chimney/crack on the L side of the main 'Omega' face, just R of a pinnacle/boulder. Start beneath the faint groove 3m R of this.

FA: Andrew Thompson, Greg Child (with 1 bolt!), 1978

23 Sport 20m
10 ** Methotrexate

Meant to be an excellent pumper - if you don't mind the hassles of such a wandery route.

Start: Start as for 'Bloodline', up to rest at 7m. R across wall to 3rd bolt on Bop till You Drop. Down and down and R to groove and up it join Broomstick.

FA: @mikllaw, 1981

25 Sport 25m
11 * The Left Hand of Satan / Unnamed

Rebolted in 2012. Excellent thin climbing previously graded 29, then 27 after a likely FA by Reuben. Much harder than SV Direct but still 27. Start immediately below high first bolt. Has also been climbed via SVs start at the same grade.

FA: Reuben Bennett-Daly, 2003

27 Sport 15m, 4
12 * What Lies Beneath

Completes the trilogy of excellent girdles on the left wall. Taking in the cruxes of most of the routes and requiring rope trickery and an attentive belayer to guarantee the safety of your ankles this is unlikely to gain too much attention... certainly not a route for a busy weekend! Start at Left Hand of Satan then very thin moves to gain the sloper and traverse on Satanic Verses until the large pocket. Easier moves right via Bop and Bewitched to gain the jugs on Broomstick at its third clip. Soak up the lactic and continue the charge right via Hollow Screams Original crux to finish up Boogie or Boogie RHV.

FA: @mrewi

28 Sport 30m
13 * Between Good and Evil

Squeezed in but the new climbing is completely independent and would be difficult to escape. Climb SV start to sloper then up and left into ultradirect line via thin hard moves. 3 rings and optional #8 wire up high to new DRB anchor. Crux hold damaged but has been repeated since.

FA: Mark Rewi, 2014

28 Sport 18m, 4
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
14 ** Satanic Verses (Direct)

Improves the original by keeping it independent to the top. Now best to finish direct to BGAEs new anchors. Soft touch.

27 Sport 25m
15 ** Satanic Verses

This is the original which joins Bop halfway up.

Start: Start a few metres left of the big pinnacle/boulder. Who changed this to 27? Tell em they're dreaming!

FA: Matt Brooks, 2000

26 Sport 25m
16 ** Satan said Dance

Start up Bop for 2 bolts, move left and finish up 'Satanic Verses' Direct. Probably 26 (easier than SV original and HS original), but very nice. Traversing left higher (above the large pocket on SV) is an excellent and more sustained variant at 26.

FA: Alistair Robertson, 2000

26 Sport 20m
17 ** Bop Till You Drop

Excellent, and not too hard for the grade.

Start: Start 2m L of 'Broomstick', off the top L side of the pinnacle/boulder. Rebolted 2014.

FA: Mark Moorhead, 1982

25 Sport 22m
18 * Bewitched

Another good route, this time just slightly harder than 'Broomstick', although the crux is still the bouldery start!

Start: Start as for 'Broomstick'.

FA: Matt Brooks, Daniel Brooks, 1993

24 Sport 21m
19 ** The Broomstick / Broomstick

Bouldery 24. desperate

FA: Mike Law, 1979

23 Sport 21m
20 * Voodoo People / Broomstick RHV

Salvages a precious sliver of hitherto ignored real estate for Melbourne's rock-poor locals.

Start: Start as for 'Broomstick' then up right and direct through scoop via RBs and optional #2 camalot to DBB. Rebolted 2015.

FA: A bit of a group effort through the late noughties!, 2000

24 Sport 22m
21 Depravity

Another link up for when you have finished the rest. Climb Broomstick to jugs. Extend third bolt then traverse right to join the crux of HS original. Once through the difficulties finish as per Boogie RHV. More sustained than HS original.

26 Sport 20m
22 The Howling Eliminate (Closed Project)

Surely the last (almost) independent line on this cliff?! Hard start off block immediately below camouflaged ring to boulder hanging arete and corner between Broomstick and Hollow Screams. From first jug near top of corner push back right past second ring to climb direct to the poor stance at the Hollow Screams 'half moon' jug (the big jug rests out left on broomstick and at the stance are both out). Finish via Hollow Screams original 26 crux.

Set by @mrewi

28 Sport Project 18m
23 *** Hollow Screams Direct

The hardest route around 'Melbourne'.

Start: Start 3m L of Boogie on the far R side of the big boulder. 29 if climbed direct but some will succumb to temptation to rest up right in the scoop or on the jugs out left at the same level, both of which are probably 28.

FA: Matt Brooks, 1999

28 to 29 Sport 22m
24 * Boogie- Broomstick link up / Boogie into Broomstick

Meant to be ok.

Start: Start as for Boogie and traverse left across scoop to join broomstick. Has also been climbed diagonally up left from hollow screams to join Voodoo People at the scoop. Excellent sustained 23 though a little run out.

FA: Nick Taylor early 80s, 2000

23 Sport 20m
25 * Hollow Screams Original / Boogie LHV / Boogie Direct

Veer L from 2nd FH of BTYP to RBs on arete, then back R up small flake to rejoin BTYP. Crux bolt replaced 2015 after the original glue in started to move!

FA: Matt Brooks, 2000

26 Sport 20m
26 * (Unnamed) 21 Unknown 21m
RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
27 *** Boogie 'til You Puke


Almost certainly the most popular sport route within 3 hours' drive of 'Melbourne'. Might be slightly solid for the grade... but it's a great route.

Start: Start 3m L of 'Witch', beneath a short finger crack which starts about 4m up.

FA: Mike Law, Ian Ravenscroft. early 80s, 2000

21 Sport 25m, 6
28 Boogie RHV / Boogie into Witch LHF

A much better way to approach 'Witch' LHF, with some nice independent moves in between.

Start: Start as for Boogie.

FA: Neil Monteith, 2000

FA: Cameron Fairbairn, 2005

23 Sport 20m
29 ** Warlock

For those at the grade it's an excellent adventure through otherwise hostile territory.

Start as for 'Witch'. Head left along the large flake, joining 'Boogie til you puke' along the way. Clip Boogie's 5th bolt (on the arete) then traverse delicately left. Finish up the final groove of 'Broomstick', passing a carrot along the way.

20 Mixed 35m, 3
30 ** Witch / Witch Direct Start

An area 'classic'. Victoria's first 17, with a crux arguably deserving of at least a grade harder than that. Steep but juggy start as for 'Wishful thinking', then up the obvious crack all the way to the top.

This direct start is now the standard way to do the climb, but 'Witch Original Start' started as for 'Romulus' and traversed across left to the crack.

FA: John Fahey,Peter Jackson, 22nd Apr

17 Trad 21m
31 Witch Left Variant Finish / Witch LHF

Superseded by "Boogie into 'Witch' LHF".

23 Unknown 7m
32 Witch Right Variant Finish / Witch RHF

Start up 'Witch', then move right and up past an awkwardly-positioned bolt (not as far right as 'Wishful Thinking').

21 Mixed 15m, 1
33 * Wishful Thinking

Start as for Witch, but when a crack departs to the right about 6m from the ground, follow it to a ledge. Clip the bolt and reach up high, then follow jugs to the top.

FA: Mike Law, Ian Ravenscroft, 1982

16 Mixed 21m, 1
34 Witch Original Start

The way 'Witch' was originally climbed started as for 'Romulus' and moved left into the crack. Now superseded by the direct start.

FA: John Fahey, Peter Jackson, 22nd Apr

17 Trad 21m
35 Time Child

Start up 'Romulus', moving left to clip bolt on 'Wishful Thinking', then up right past a crack.

18 Trad 20m
36 Romulus

FA: Peter Jackson and Steve Craddock, 1962

10 Trad 12m
37 Remus

FA: Steve Craddock and Peter Jackson, 1962

8 Trad 12m
38 Spellbound

Start off boulders under the single high carrot bolt.

May need a good brushing as the lichen and moss has reclaimed most of it.

19 Mixed 10m, 1
39 Gun Club 14 Trad 10m
40 Sze 12 Trad 15m
41 Humping the Camel

Straight up the wall between 'Sze' and 'Drain Pipes'.

9 Trad 18m
42 Drain Pipes 8 Trad 18m
43 Jugs and jury

2m R drainpipes. Climb wide crack on its R side, pull through overhang and zoom to top

5 Trad 16m
44 Next to Impossible 18 Unknown 18m
45 Impossible 18 Unknown 18m
46 Tyranny and Mutation 18 Unknown 16m
47 Cultasaurous Erectus 20 Unknown 16m
48 * Dominance and Submission 21 Unknown 18m
49 As Beautiful As A Foot 9 Unknown 10m
50 Pockets 10 Unknown 10m
51 Blue Oyster Wall 14 Unknown 10m
52 Career of Evil 20 Unknown 20m
53 Nosferatu 14 Unknown 10m
54 XTCherie 11 Unknown 10m
55 Thundering Guns

Bouldery wall L of HS, 2BRs.

Start: Start 2m L of HS.

FA: Matt Brooks, 1991

24 Trad 10m
56 Boogie 'til You Puke RHF

It's hard to see how this is any different to Boogie.

Start: Start as for Boogie.

FA: Matt Brooks, 2000

23 Sport 18m
57 First Touch

Almost not worth recording as it's been almost completely superseded. Then again, many 'Melbourne' locals will probably become desperate enough to do it at some point.

Start: Start as for Boogie.

FA: Paul Cuthbert, 1994

21 Sport 25m

1.8. Gully behind Omega 8 routes in Cliff

All Unknown

Long/Lat: 144.596342, -37.369642


Refer to Privy Block

RouteGradeStyleSelected ascents
1 Straining Rail 12 Unknown 20m
2 Too Humped to Pump 18 Unknown
3 Chain 19 Unknown 20m
4 No Schmecking

Refer to Privy Block

21 Unknown 20m
5 * John 19 Unknown 20m
6 S-Bend 15 Unknown 20m
7 The Snatch 18 Unknown
8 ** From Her To Eternity

FA: Michael Woodrow

22 Unknown 14m

2. Index by grade

Grade Stars Name Style Area
5 Spit the dummy Trad 20m 1.5. Lower Tier
Jugs and jury Trad 16m 1.7. Omega Block
6 Oxbow Trad 130m 4 1.5. Lower Tier
7 Hawker Trad 15m 1.7. Omega Block
8 Dummy bidder Trad 20m 1.5. Lower Tier
Drain Pipes Trad 18m 1.7. Omega Block
Remus Trad 12m 1.7. Omega Block
9 Return of the Fush Trad 20m 1.5. Lower Tier
As Beautiful As A Foot Unknown 10m 1.7. Omega Block
Humping the Camel Trad 18m 1.7. Omega Block
10 * Grey Arete Trad 32m 1.5. Lower Tier
Limbo Trad 78m 1.5. Lower Tier
Pockets Unknown 10m 1.7. Omega Block
Romulus Trad 12m 1.7. Omega Block
11 Limbo Direct Finish Unknown 30m 1.5. Lower Tier
XTCherie Unknown 10m 1.7. Omega Block
12 Break Like the Wind Trad 8m 1.3. Break like the wind
A Soft Touch Trad 25m 1.5. Lower Tier
* One Hump or Two Trad 75m 3 1.5. Lower Tier
Sze Trad 15m 1.7. Omega Block
Straining Rail Unknown 20m 1.8. Gully behind Omega
14 Blue Oyster Wall Unknown 10m 1.7. Omega Block
Gun Club Trad 10m 1.7. Omega Block
Nosferatu Unknown 10m 1.7. Omega Block
15 A Dose of the Politicians Trad 25m 1.5. Lower Tier
Blind Sox Trad 30m 1.5. Lower Tier
S-Bend Unknown 20m 1.8. Gully behind Omega
15 R Black Magic Trad 20m 1.7. Omega Block
16 Sox Glo Trad 29m 1.5. Lower Tier
* Split Images Mixed 20m, 2 1.5. Lower Tier
* Wishful Thinking Mixed 21m, 1 1.7. Omega Block
16 R Blind Justice Mixed 40m, 2 1.5. Lower Tier
17 * Poxbow Trad 30m 1.5. Lower Tier
Wee Ripper Sport 12m, 2 1.7. Omega Block
** Witch Trad 21m 1.7. Omega Block
Witch Original Start Trad 21m 1.7. Omega Block
17 to 18 Keystones Sport 10m, 2 1.5. Lower Tier
V0+ Unknown 2 Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
18 Tyranny and Mutation Trad 1.1. Privy Block
Scenester Mixed 8m, 1 1.3. Break like the wind
Biker Mice From Mars Unknown 32m 1.5. Lower Tier
No Joy Trad 20m 1.5. Lower Tier
War Front Trad 15m 1.6. Outcrop below Black Magic
Good Things Come in Small Packages Sport 12m, 3 1.7. Omega Block
Impossible Unknown 18m 1.7. Omega Block
Next to Impossible Unknown 18m 1.7. Omega Block
Size Matters Sport 8m, 3 1.7. Omega Block
Time Child Trad 20m 1.7. Omega Block
Tyranny and Mutation Unknown 16m 1.7. Omega Block
The Snatch Unknown 1.8. Gully behind Omega
Too Humped to Pump Unknown 1.8. Gully behind Omega
19 ** Law Enforcer Mixed 20m, 4 1.5. Lower Tier
The Unknown Mixed 12m, 2 1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall
Spellbound Mixed 10m, 1 1.7. Omega Block
Chain Unknown 20m 1.8. Gully behind Omega
* John Unknown 20m 1.8. Gully behind Omega
V1 Babylon Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
The 50degree V1 Boulder 3m 1.1. Privy Block
* The Hanging Wave Boulder 2m 1.2. The Hanging Wave
The Nose Boulder 2m 1.2. The Hanging Wave
Funnel Logic Boulder 1.3. Break like the wind
Gotta start somewhere Boulder Project 1.5. Lower Tier
20 * No Joy- State Of Shock link up Unknown 20m 1.5. Lower Tier
State of Shock Mixed 25m, 2 1.5. Lower Tier
Young Warriors Trad 16m 1.6. Outcrop below Black Magic
An Evil Brew Mixed 12m, 1 1.7. Omega Block
Career of Evil Unknown 20m 1.7. Omega Block
Cultasaurous Erectus Unknown 16m 1.7. Omega Block
** Warlock Mixed 35m, 3 1.7. Omega Block
V2 North Arete Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
Outside Edge Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
Pop Tarts Boulder 2m 1.4. FernHill
Arete Boulder 4m 1.5. Lower Tier
Leaky Bucket Boulder 4m 1.5. Lower Tier
21 Dominance and Submission Trad 1.1. Privy Block
No Schmecking Trad 20m 1.1. Privy Block
* Low Life! Sport 8m, 2 1.3. Break like the wind
* Slut's Honour Sport 17m, 4 1.5. Lower Tier
Sluts Have No Honour Sport 15m 1.5. Lower Tier
Split Images Variant Mixed 20m, 3 1.5. Lower Tier
* Unprofessional Conduct Trad 20m 1.5. Lower Tier
Heat Seeker Trad 15m 1.6. Outcrop below Black Magic
* (Unnamed) Unknown 21m 1.7. Omega Block
*** Boogie 'til You Puke Sport 25m, 6 1.7. Omega Block
* Dominance and Submission Unknown 18m 1.7. Omega Block
First Touch Sport 25m 1.7. Omega Block
* Powder Hound Trad 30m 1.7. Omega Block
Witch Right Variant Finish Mixed 15m, 1 1.7. Omega Block
No Schmecking Unknown 20m 1.8. Gully behind Omega
22 * Here Come the Bastards Sport 12m, 3 1.1. Privy Block
Silent Assassin Sport 20m, 2 1.5. Lower Tier
Corrosion of Conformity Mixed 18m, 3 1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall
* Into Oblivion Mixed 20m, 4 1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall
** The Oblivion of Conformity Mixed 18m, 3 1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall
* Lola V Sport 15m, 4 1.7. Omega Block
** From Her To Eternity Unknown 14m 1.8. Gully behind Omega
V3 ** Pocket Pulling Perfect Boulder 10m 1.1. Privy Block
Standing Strain Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
Arete Boulder 3m 1.3. Break like the wind
Beginnings Boulder 7m 1.3. Break like the wind
Lichen Spawn Boulder 5m 1.3. Break like the wind
* Steel-plated Beanie Boulder 5m 1.3. Break like the wind
The Green Room Boulder 4m 1.3. Break like the wind
Sound of one hand clapping Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
** The Standing Switch Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
Crouching Michael, Praying Mantle Boulder 2m 1.5. Lower Tier
Four digits Boulder 4m 1.5. Lower Tier
23 * Tough Love Sport 12m, 4 1.1. Privy Block
* Underseige Sport 12m, 4 1.5. Lower Tier
** Red Dawn Mixed 18m, 7 1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall
* Bloodline Sport 20m 1.7. Omega Block
Boogie 'til You Puke RHF Sport 18m 1.7. Omega Block
Boogie RHV Sport 20m 1.7. Omega Block
* Boogie- Broomstick link up Sport 20m 1.7. Omega Block
** The Broomstick Sport 21m 1.7. Omega Block
Witch Left Variant Finish Unknown 7m 1.7. Omega Block
V4 The Hull Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
* NE Prow Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
** Out Too Far Boulder 4m 1.4. FernHill
Outside Edge Sit Start Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
The Core of it All Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
The Sound of One Hand Slapping Boulder 1.4. FernHill
V4 R *** Migration Boulder 6m 1.4. FernHill
24 Slut's Alliance Sport 18m, 6 1.5. Lower Tier
* Bewitched Sport 21m 1.7. Omega Block
Thundering Guns Trad 10m 1.7. Omega Block
* Voodoo People Sport 22m 1.7. Omega Block
25 The Green Alliance Sport 15m 1.5. Lower Tier
Into Oblivion My Only Wish Mixed 20m, 7 1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall
My Only Wish Sport 15m, 5 1.5.1. My Only Wish Wall
** Bop Till You Drop Sport 22m 1.7. Omega Block
** Methotrexate Sport 25m 1.7. Omega Block
V5 ** Lip Traverse Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
Over Strained Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
Permanent Psych Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
The Half South Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
Nightshade Boulder 1.3. Break like the wind
* Out Too Far Direct Boulder 1.4. FernHill
V5 R ** Glimmer Sparkle Fade Part II Boulder 6m 1.4. FernHill
26 Depravity Sport 20m 1.7. Omega Block
* Hollow Screams Original Sport 20m 1.7. Omega Block
** Satan said Dance Sport 20m 1.7. Omega Block
** Satanic Verses Sport 25m 1.7. Omega Block
V6 Koala Link Boulder 5m 1.3. Break like the wind
** Release the koalas Boulder 5m 1.3. Break like the wind
** Flick the Switch Boulder 3m 1.4. FernHill
The Dying of the Light Derivation Boulder 4m 1.4. FernHill
*** The Great Migration Boulder 8m 1.4. FernHill
27 ** Satanic Verses (Direct) Sport 25m 1.7. Omega Block
* The Left Hand of Satan Sport 15m, 4 1.7. Omega Block
V7 Positive Ape Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
Straining Rail Extension Boulder 9m 1.1. Privy Block
*** The Straining Rail Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
28 * Between Good and Evil Sport 18m, 4 1.7. Omega Block
The Howling Eliminate (Closed Project) Sport Project 18m 1.7. Omega Block
* What Lies Beneath Sport 30m 1.7. Omega Block
28 to 29 *** Hollow Screams Direct Sport 22m 1.7. Omega Block
V8 * Humpty Dumpty Boulder 3m 1.1. Privy Block
** The Big Footed Rad Koala Boulder 9m 1.3. Break like the wind
** The Radness Boulder 1.3. Break like the wind
V9 The Long Road Home Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
Under Strain Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
The Rad Koala Boulder 1.3. Break like the wind
? Southside Boulder Project 1.1. Privy Block
Training the Untrainable Boulder 1.1. Privy Block
Open Project Boulder Project 1.5. Lower Tier