帮助

攀登术语词汇表

简介回到顶部

当前的攀岩术语词汇表是一份攀岩相关的术语、行话和行业习语的定义列表,此表覆盖了theCrag涉及的所有风格

和theCrag上的其他内容一样,本词汇表有赖于您和其他theCrag用户来更新、更正和明确定义。如果您想添加新条目(无论严肃的或趣味性的)、更正已有定义、或添加更多详细信息,请在theCrag的攀岩术语词汇表论坛中添加评论。

Filter terms by category回到顶部

在术语词汇表中找到308个条目

攀岩术语回到顶部

GOU回到顶部

钩脚

Wrapping the top of the foot up or around a rock feature.

TIE回到顶部

铁道攀登

Via ferratas typically follow a steel cable that is fixed every few meters to the rock through extended rock faces. Using a via ferrata kit, climbers can secure themselves to the cable, limiting any fall. The cable as well as additionally installed climbing aids, such as iron rungs, pegs, carved steps, and even ladders and bridges can also be used as an aid for climbing.

YUN回到顶部

运动攀岩

A climbing style. Sport climbing involves climbing routes that are equipped with permanently fixed protection such as pre-installed bolts and anchors.

A回到顶部

A阿布拉科夫冰洞

参见V型冰洞.

A阿式攀登

一种攀登形式,全称“阿尔卑斯式攀登”。攀登者需全程自己背负全部装备攀爬高海拔山峰(无背夫或协作),可能用到攀冰和干攀技术。

A安全带

系在腰部(及身体其他部位)的系带系统,用于将绳索连接在攀登者身上。

Alpine start

在攀登日很早起床出发(通常在日出前)开始攀登的行为,主要是为了赢得在日出前低后的气温下攀登的时间,以获得更加稳固的冰雪条件,增加攀登和下撤的安全性。

Arête

源于法语,指岩壁或巨石的边缘或突脊,或指是山体的山脊。

automatic belay

A fast method for setting up a two-point anchor in sport climbing, using the climbing rope to attach to the anchor points.

B回到顶部

B(钩状)冰锥

一种锯齿形金属钩,可以勾在冰面上形成较弱的保护。

B(技术型)冰镐

经过优化,用于攀冰和高难度攀登的现代冰镐,通常简称为冰镐或技术镐。

B巴卡尔绳梯

一种绳梯类训练器材,用于训练核心力量和仅用上肢攀登(campus)的力量。以其发明者,美国攀岩家约翰•巴卡尔的名字命名。

B八字环

一种下降器,形如阿拉伯数字8,有一个大孔和一个小孔。曾被广泛用于攀登保护。

B八字结

基础攀登绳结之一,用于把绳子连接到攀登者的安全带上,以及其他很多用途。请避免与“八字保护”或“八字下降器”混淆。

B半绳

常用于攀冰或传统攀登的成对绳索。两根绳索都系在攀登者身上,但每个保护点只挂入其中一根绳索,可减少线路曲折带来的拖拽阻力。另见双绳和单绳。

B保护(确保)

使用保护器或类似方式控制绳索,以对绳索上的攀岩者提供坠落保护的行为。在保护器问世前,人们通过把绳子绕过腰臀来增加摩擦力。

B保护环(确保环)

攀登安全带前面的一个缝制好的扁带环,用于在保护或下降时将保护器与人连接。

B保护器

用于保护攀登的机械装备,通常通过弯曲绳索增加额外的摩擦力以控制绳索。保护器的式样多种多样,常见的有ATC、GRIGRI、Reverso、平板、八字、管式等。其中一些保护器可以用于沿绳下降。在一些场景下,可使用意大利半扣替代保护器的功能。

B保护站

使用器材连接锚点(通常不止一个)形成的一套装置,用以负担保护行为或顶绳系统所需的拉力。

B冰川裂缝

移动的冰川与固定冰或冰原分离处的巨大裂缝,是登山的巨大阻碍。

B冰锤

有锤头和平滑镐尖的轻量化冰镐。

B冰裂缝

冰川上的裂缝。冰裂缝的长度和裂缝宽度各异,经常被雪层掩盖形成冰川行走时的常见危险之一(另一种常见危险是落石)。覆盖在冰裂缝上的雪层称为雪桥。

B冰爪

穿着在高山靴上的金属尖刺制品,用于加强在冰面或雪面上移动的安全性。

B冰锥

用于在陡峭冰壁或冰裂缝救援系统中架设保护点的螺纹冰锥。现代管状螺纹冰锥的长度介于10~23厘米之间,能提供较强且可靠的冰面保护。

B布林结

通常用于在绳尾制造固定绳圈的一种绳结。其优势在于绳索和绳圈经受(来自坠落的)大拉力后仍不难解开,因此经常被用于连接攀岩者的安全带。

B攀石垫(抱石垫)

在攀石活动中用于缓冲坠落的厚垫。

Ball nut

一种具有活动部件的岩塞,由一个块塞(nut)和一个在块塞上滑动的半球体组成,可依靠半球体的滑动改变塞子的宽度。

Banshee保护站

使用攀岩绳、辅绳或扁带将可靠的挂片连接在一起形成的非分散受力保护站,两个挂片互为备份,但非同时受力。仅应在每个挂片都高度可靠的情况下使用。

bash-in

A conical bolt that is hammered into an undersized hole.

Bashie塞

一种由金属缆线和铝头组成的器械攀登设备。使用方法类似铜头岩塞————用岩锤将其敲入开口的浅缝中以提供支点。在上世纪70年代初,在优胜美地的器械攀登活动中曾被大量应用。

bat-hang

description missing

Beta

完攀线路的方法和有助于完攀攀岩线路的信息。

C回到顶部

C侧踩

使用攀岩鞋的内侧或外侧边缘踩点。在没有脚点的情况下则使用“抹踩”。

C侧踩(外侧)

使用脚的外侧边缘(小趾侧)踩踏支点。

C侧拉

攀登垂直的岩边时,双手向侧面扳住岩石边缘,双脚利用摩擦或很小的脚点提供向另一侧的对抗力的攀爬技术。

C拆除锚栓

拆除锚栓即拆除人工装在岩壁上的膨胀锚栓(及锚栓固定的挂片)。此行为通常涉及对于打钻开线行为的伦理争论。

C铲头(冰镐配件)

垂直于冰镐柄,安装在冰镐顶端的一种金属薄片,可用于在雪或冰中挖出立足点。

C长片岩钉

一种厚度通常仅有几毫米,前端略微变薄(类似刃部)的扁岩钉。

C超高攀石(嗨抱)

因过高而十分危险的攀石线路,介于普通攀石和自由独攀之间的灰色地带。

clean-climbing

A type of ascent. Climbing a route without resting or falling but not specifying in which ascent style it was done (eg flash, on-sight, red point).

Crimper(抠握)片点

  • 小到只能用手指尖抠住的岩点。

  • 抓握小点使用屈指手法。

D回到顶部

D大岩壁攀登

大岩壁攀登是一种长距离多段攀登,通常需要攀登数日才能完成。攀岩者通常需要吊帐和拖吊物资以在大岩壁线路上度日。

D单指洞

尽能容纳一根手指的岩点。

D导向点

为跟攀者或顶绳攀登者特别放置的保护点,以避免其攀爬横移或外倾路线时脱落而大幅度摆荡。

D蹬靠技术

用于烟囱类宽缝的攀登技巧,使用后背支撑裂缝的一面,而脚撑住裂缝的另一面。

D顶绳攀登

A climbing style. Top roping means that the rope is already set up through an anchor at the top of the climb prior to the climber getting on the wall. Top-roping either requires easy access to the top of the climb, often by means of a footpath or scrambling or another climber that installs the rope after having lead the climb.

D动力绳

一种具有适当延展性以缓冲坠落冲击力的标准攀岩绳,与静力绳对应。

D动态攀爬

动态攀爬(简称动态)指攀岩者借身体的移动的惯性出手抓住原本无法触及的岩点,与保持三点接触岩壁、缓慢且有控制地移动的静态攀爬相对应。双脚跃离岩点的动态攀爬动作称为Dyno。一只或双只脚与岩石保持接触的动态攀爬称为死点(dead point),或俗称动态移动。另见静态攀爬。

D动态移动

攀爬中一种有控制的动态动作:向上快速移动身体,在身体运动的最高点伸出另一只手抓点的同时,双脚和一只手依然不离开岩壁。双脚跃离岩点的动态动作通常称作Dyno。另见静态和动态攀爬。

D陡壁

与山脚部的缓坡地形相比,在山上部出现的斜度陡增的地形。

D独攀跳伞

由Dean Potter发明的一种攀爬形式,攀登者自由独攀线路,背负降落伞保护坠落。

D段

The portion of a climb between two belay points. A 'full pitch' is the same height as the length of one’s rope: 50–60 metres (160–200 ft).

D多段攀登

Any climbing done on routes that are too long for a single belay rope, and hence consist of multiple pitches which must be belayed separately.

dialled

完全掌握了某个攀岩动作或线路。

Dyno

双脚跃离岩壁以抓住目标点的动态攀爬动作。

E回到顶部

epic

天气、受伤、夜幕、准备不足或其他各种不利因素相结合,导致攀登格外困难。

étrier

A webbing ladder for aid climbing.

exposure

description missing

F回到顶部

F法式自由攀登

一种攀登方式:领攀者采取自由攀登,跟攀者可以抓握保护装置以加速整个攀登进程。

F反挂(快挂)

  • 把绳子挂入快挂的错误方式之一,十分危险。绳子正确挂入时,攀登者下方的绳子应从快挂靠近岩壁的一面穿出,连接到自己身上。而反挂指的是绳子从快挂外侧进入快挂,传入快挂和岩壁之间。在坠落中,反挂的绳子有较大概率从快挂中脱出。

  • 亦指一种在岩壁外倾的多段线路绳降的技巧。第一个下降的人在下降过程中把绳子挂入岩壁上的一些快挂,以保持自己和岩壁的距离,并回到下方的保护站(与先锋攀登时一边上攀一边挂快挂相反,所以称为“反挂”)。快挂由最后一名下降的攀岩者在下降过程中回收。

F反肩

一种攀岩手法:弯曲肘部,拇指指向下方,在身前抓握岩点并向侧面(肘的方向)施力,可理解为侧拉的反向动作。

F分步尝试

一种攀爬方式,先锋攀爬(接近能力极限的)线路,中途可能挂在绳上休息,或脱落后不下降,在原高度继续攀爬。

F分步自由攀登

一种完攀打卡类型。自由攀登完成一条线路,但攀爬过程中曾挂在绳上短暂休息或脱落。德国萨克森州等一些地区承认此种完攀,而在其他地区称其为分步完攀.

F粉袋

攀岩时用于盛放镁粉的小袋子,通常使用独立的腰带随身携带,或挂在攀登安全带上。攀石时通常使用大型的粉袋,此类粉袋通常放在线路旁边的地面,攀登线路时不随身携带。

F粉球

用织物做成的小球或小袋,约为鸡蛋大小。放在粉袋内使用,用于盛放镁粉或粘住镁粉,可减少摸粉时漏出的粉尘。

F枫丹白露难度

一种用于攀石的难度体系,名自法国巴黎附近的攀石胜地枫丹白露

F辅绳

小尺寸的静力绳,常用于制做绳圈或其他辅助功能。

flapper

一种手部伤,一块皮肤掀开或剥离。

friend

通过弹簧联动偏心凸轮的装置,被安放在石缝中以用作保护点,常见于传统攀登,亦称为“机械塞”。该类设备通常包含安装在1或2根轴上的2~4个凸轮,沿设备手柄方向的下拉力会使凸轮向两侧张开。

G回到顶部

G干攀

使用攀冰器械(冰镐和冰爪)攀爬岩壁。

G高海拔脑水肿(HACE)

在缺氧状况下长时间体力消耗导致的一种严重甚至致命的高山反应。

G钩

  • 器械攀登中使用的金属钩。

  • 使用脚尖或脚跟勾挂岩点以保持平衡或支撑体重的攀登技巧。

G钩环

有可自动回弹的门柱的铝合金环,在现代攀登中被大量应用,常见用途之一是连接绳索和锚点。

G固定锚点

长期固定在岩壁上的保护装置,通常是膨胀螺栓挂片或岩钉。

G固定绳索/固定绳索横移

领攀者在垂直或横移线路上为跟攀者固定的绳索。跟攀者使用机械上升器或主锁挂入绳索以沿绳索移动并获得保护。

G挂脚

使用脚跟后部压住岩点以保持平衡或提高重心的攀登技巧。与攀岩中最常见的“足尖踩”动作相反,挂脚需要大腿后部肌群发力,以使脚跟勾住岩点并发力。

G挂脚

一类攀爬脚法的统称,包括脚趾勾和挂脚跟。

G挂片

膨胀锚栓保护点上用于挂入快挂的金属部分。

G挂绳

将保护用的绳索连接进保护点。

gorp

在长途攀登或徒步时,定期吃些小食以在正餐之间保持能量水平。这个名字来自“Good Old Raisins and Peanuts”(令人怀念的葡萄干和花生等小食)的缩写。

Grigri

Petzl公司制造的一种保护器,在攀爬者脱落,绳索受力时可提供辅助制动力。常被误认为是自动保护装置。

gronked

领攀时(错误地)偏离路线,被困于远高预计难度的岩壁上。这个词源于英格兰Avon峡谷的Gronk线路,该线路因常误导攀登者而闻名。

H回到顶部

H红点(未分步尝试)

一种攀登类型:红点完攀一条线路,且在此前的尝试中,每次脱落都直接降至地面,未停在线路中间反复尝试、休息、或观察线路(包括下降过程中)。

H蝴蝶结

亦称“中间结”、“蝴蝶绳环”、“高山蝴蝶结”等,用于在绳索中间制作固定绳环。常用于连接冰川绳队里位于中间的攀登者。

H胡萝卜螺钉

在澳大利亚攀岩界被广泛使用的金属螺钉,螺帽为六角形,螺杆具有类似自攻钉的锥头。人们在岩壁上钻出直径小于螺杆的深孔,将胡萝卜螺钉敲入,并保持一小部分螺杆突出于岩壁表面。使用时,攀登者将平板式挂片临时挂在露出的螺杆上以形成保护点。据传此类螺钉由澳大利亚攀登者Bryden Allen在20世纪60年代发明。

H护膝垫

用于在锁膝(膝顶)动作中保护大腿和膝关节的配件,通常是缝有橡胶衬垫的护膝。穿着在膝盖上方的大腿部分,在锁膝时橡胶衬垫可以增加摩擦力,同时分散作用于腿部的压力。

H滑降

在陡峭雪坡上主动下滑的行为。

H化学锚栓

一种(通常带有金属环的)锚栓:使用化学胶水(通常为双组分环氧树脂)固定在岩壁上钻好的孔里。

H环保攀登

通过环保的交通方式抵达岩壁,包括:徒步、骑自行车或乘坐公共交通。

H混合传统攀登

在部分段落使用膨胀螺栓等固定锚点提供保护的传统攀登线路。在无固定锚点的段落依然需要用传统攀登装备安装保护点。

H混合攀登

攀登包含冰、雪和岩石等结构的线路。

J回到顶部

J鸡翅塞

一种宽缝攀登技巧。将肘部弯曲(形似鸡翅)塞入岩缝,用手掌和肩背顶住裂缝的两壁。

J夹角

内夹角

J降级

把线路原定难度改低的行为。通常由完攀线路的人建议、商议决定,有时可能因为后来的完攀者发现了更简单的爬法。为线路降级有时会招致争议。

J接近

徒步抵达攀岩线路或攀登起点的过程。有时需要简单的攀爬,偶然会有和攀登本身同样危险的段落。接近时通常穿着接近鞋或徒步鞋,而不是攀岩鞋。

J金毛猎犬(谐称)

清理线路的攀登者(跟攀者)忘记拆除一个保护点或忘记把绳子摘离挂片并攀爬到该保护点上方,导致上方保护失效————因为绳子向下通过下方锚点,会把攀登者往下拉。

J菊绳

一种扁带做成的攀岩装备。通常由尼龙扁带缝制成1米多一点的扁带圈,上面每隔约5cm即有一个扁带圈,便于攀岩者在连接自己和保护站时选用适当的长度。

J均衡受力

适当设置保护站,以使受力平均地分配到每个锚点上。

Jesus piece

多段攀登时,领攀者在离开保护站之后挂入的第一个保护点。该保护点能降低坠落系数,保护传统攀登保护站。

jib

非常小的脚点,通常只能支撑大脚趾尖端,甚至只能依靠摩擦力提供支撑。

jug

  • 大而好抓的手点。

  • 实用上升器沿绳上升。

K回到顶部

K开门

如果攀岩者与岩壁的接触点在一条直线上,攀岩者的身体很可能会不受控制地绕此直线甩离岩壁,形似绕门轴旋转开关的门板。

K开线工具

人工安装锚栓所需的(简化版)全套工具。

K克氏抓结

普鲁士结的一种变体,适用于辅绳较短,但有扁带可用的情境。

L回到顶部

L串接攀登

一次攀登中串联了多条独立存在的攀登线路。例如,从某线路的第一段起步,之后攀爬邻近某条线路的第二段。如此完成的分段组合称为串接攀登。

L莱卡

色彩斑斓的高弹紧身裤,在上世纪八十年代备受攀岩者追捧。

L棱边

岩壁上的窄平台

L裂缝攀登

攀岩者顺着大体垂直的岩石裂缝攀登。常见的裂缝宽度从仅能伸入手指(称为指缝)到足以让攀岩者全身进入其中(称为烟囱缝),不同的裂缝的宽度决定了适用的攀登技巧。

L六角岩塞

一种块塞,通常为空心的非对称金属六角柱体,固定有扁带、钢缆或辅绳制作的绳圈,常用于传统攀登。有不同的尺寸以塞入相应宽度的岩缝中形成保护点。

L绿点

一种攀登类型:不使用运动攀线路上的挂片,仅用自己放置的保护点。即在运动攀线路上传统攀登。

L露营

在多日攀爬中在岩壁上简单宿营的行为。有时甚至没有睡袋等装备,仅仅是坐卧在岩壁的石台上勉强熬过一夜。另见露营袋

L露营袋

可容纳1-2人睡眠的防水布袋,在露营中起到简易帐篷外帐的作用。

Bivvy一词亦指在多日攀爬中在岩壁上简单宿营的行为。另见露营

M回到顶部

M锚栓

在石壁钻孔装入的膨胀螺栓,用于固定金属挂片以形成岩壁上的固定保护点。

M镁粉

碳酸镁粉末,用于在攀岩时使手干燥并增加摩擦力。

moraine

A random accumulation of boulders, rocks, scree and sand carried down the mountain and deposited by a glacier. Crossing a moraine is not especially dangerous but is slow going and is only chosen when alternative routes would take even more time.

Munter hitch

The Munter hitch, also known as the Italian hitch, Mezzo Barcaiolo, HMS (for the German Halbmastwurfsicherung) or the Crossing Hitch, is a simple adjustable knot to control friction in a life-lining or belay system. Named after the Swiss mountainguide Werner Munter. Often used as belay knot if you lack a belay device.

Mussy hook

A construction type hook used as hook on an anchor. Mussy hooks often have bad gates but are massive and therefore often used in situations where lots of lowering is happening.

N回到顶部

N难点

一条攀岩线路中最难的部分。

N内夹角

两面岩壁形成的夹角,攀岩者通常可以通过撑夹角两侧的岩壁产生对抗力来攀登。

N鸟嘴岩钉

鸟嘴岩钉是高难度器械攀登中使用的一种岩钉,由大岩壁攀登者Jim "The bird" Bridwell设计,并以其外号“飞鸟”命名。鸟嘴岩钉自身只有邮票大小,但可以像微型冰镐一样嵌入岩缝,可耐受相当大的拉力。 另见RURP

natural anchor

A natural anchor is a secure natural feature which can serve as a climbing anchor by attaching a sling, lanyard, or cordelette and a carabiner. Examples of natural anchors include trees, boulders, lodged chockstones, horns, icicles, and protrusions.

naturals

In a climbing gym, the natural features of the wall texture itself, i.e. those which can be climbed on but are not bolt-on holds.

no-hand rest

An entirely leg-supported resting position during climbing that does not require hands on the rock.

nut / stopper

A metal wedge with a wire loop for insertion into cracks in rock used for protection in traditional climbing. See also hex or wire.

nut tool

A metal tool for easier removal of pieces of traditional protection (nuts, cams).

O回到顶部

off belay

Called out by a climber when requesting that the belayer remove belay equipment from the climbing rope (e.g. when cleaning top protection from a lead route). Replied to with 'belay off'.

off-finger crack

Off-finger or off-hand cracks are wider than finger cracks, but not large enough for the entire hand to fit inside.

off-width / offwidth

A crack too wide for fist jams and too narrow to be a chimney.

on-sight

A type of ascent. Climbing a route without falling or resting on gear, and with no prior beta or knowledge of the moves.

overhang

A section of rock or ice that is angled beyond vertical.

P回到顶部

P攀冰

攀冰是一种通过绳索保护攀登结冰瀑布、结冰岩壁的攀登形式

P攀楼

指在人造建筑物上从事类似攀石的运动。

P攀石

一种线路类型。指的是在较低矮的线路上攀爬,脱落时可安全地跳回地面(或软垫上)而无需使用绳索保护。

P膨胀螺栓

由膨胀螺栓、挂片和螺母组成的锚点。在岩壁上钻孔后放入膨胀螺栓,挂片放在螺栓突出岩壁的部分,通过锁紧螺母使膨胀螺栓紧固在岩壁上。

P平台

从岩壁突出的水平岩石平台。

panic carabiner

A self-closing carabiner attached to a semi-rigid webbing as aid to reach distant bolts (clip far overhead).

peg

Pegs are a type of protection that is generally hammered into the rock and used in situations where wires and cams cannot be used effectively. In some situations, where the local ethic frowns on hammered protection, they may also be hand placed. Pegs come in different shapes and sizes, see also piton.

pendulum traverse

Swinging across a wall or chasm while suspended from a rope affixed above the climber. Often used on big walls to reach a climbable section of rock.

permadraw

A steel cable, usually four to six inches long, with a screwlock carabiner on the bolt end and a regular carabiner on the clipping end. These are permanently fixed to bolts, and popular in heavily trafficked crags such as Rifle Mountain Park in Colorado. Permadraws make climbing and lowering convenient and efficient since you don’t have to fiddle with placing or retrieving your own quickdraws.

pig tail

See ram’s horn or ram’s head.

pinch

A hold type that is squeezed between the thumb and the other fingers.

pinkpoint

A type of ascent. Free climbing by leading on pre-placed gear (or already clipped quickdraws) after having practiced the route beforehand (either by hangdogging or top roping). See also clean and redpoint.

piton

A flat or angled metal blade of steel which incorporates a clipping hole for a carabiner or a ring in its body. Pitons are typically used in aid climbing, where an appropriate size and shape is hammered into a thin crack in the rock and preferably removed by the last team member. Also called peg or pin.

portaledge

A portaledge is a deployable hanging tent system designed for rock climbers who spend multiple days and nights on a big wall climb.

protection

  • The process of setting equipment or anchors for safety.

  • Equipment or anchors used for stopping falls. These can be fixed (eg bolts) or removable (eg cams, nuts).

protection rating

A rating system reflecting the spacing and quality of protection points in rock climbing. These are typically added to the grade of a route as an additional (and often very subjective) information. The most famous one is borrowed from the rating system of movies. Read the relevant chapter in the article on Grades on theCrag for more details.

prusik

  • A sliding friction knot used to anchor a small diameter rope to a large diameter rope. The knot bears the last name of the Austrian climber Karl Prusik (1896 - 1961) who devised it.

  • To ascend a rope with prusik slings.

prusik rope

A prusik rope, also called Reepschnur (German), is a low elongation rope with small diameter (typically 4 to 8 mm) used to prusik but also to e.g. build anchors.

Q回到顶部

Q器械攀登

一种攀登形式。使用固定或临时放置在岩壁上的保护点立足或向上拉升自己的的攀登形式。

Q强拆锚栓

破坏性地移除岩壁上用于保护的膨胀锚栓。

Q清线

移除线路上临时放置的保护装置(岩塞、快挂等),通常由绳队中最后一个攀登的人负责。

Q屈臂锁定

用力保持手臂弯曲(以释放另一只手去抓下一个手点)

Q涨拳

在拳缝中使用的涨手技巧,将手握成拳放入石缝中并涨住。

quickdraw

Two carabiners linked by a textile webbing. Used to attach a freely running rope to anchors or protection points.

quicklink

A screw-type oval-shape stainless steel carabiner which is smaller than a normal oval-shape biner, particularly one used for attaching to the chains of the master anchor.

R回到顶部

rack

A generic term for the collection of gear you are taking up on a climb. Usually composed of slings, protection, quickdraws, carabiners and other equipment for getting up and back down.

ram’s horn / ram’s head

A ram’s horn or pig tail is a type of sport anchor made of bent metal in which you can place the rope without opening or adding a carabiner.

randkluft

Randkluft is German for marginal cleft/crevasse. it is the uppermost zone of a glacier detaching from the rock. Often a severe obstacle to pass.

rap-bolted

Bolting a route from top down, on rappel.

re-bolting

The act of replacing old bolts on a route with new ones. Hard work that is often done to increase the safety of a climb (eg in case of corroded bolts, replacing steel bolts with titanium bolts in a seaside setting).

red-circle

See yo-yo style

red-cross

A rarely used term for an ascent in top rope or for seconding.

redpoint

A type of ascent. Free climbing by leading after having practiced the route beforehand (either by hangdogging or top roping). In traditional climbs it includes the placing of the gear. See also clean and pinkpoint.

retro bolting

The addition of bolts to an existing climb which has already been ascended using natural protection. Often considered unethical.

rime

A thin layer of ice and hard snow over rock. Verglas is a thin layer of ice over rock. Both are hazardous conditions that might end an ascent.

ring lock

A finger jamming technique using the bent finger to jam the first joint into a fine crack.

rodeo clipping

To clip into the first piece of protection from the ground by swinging a loop of rope so that it is caught by a carabiner. This can only be done when the first piece of gear is already placed. See also stick-clipping.

roof

A rock face that is parallel to the ground (like a ceiling) and thus steeply overhanging to climb on.

rope solo

Climbing a route using a self belay technique after having installed the rope from above.

runner

A sewn or tied sling of webbing of various lengths, though typically 24 inches long.

running belay

A similar technique to a fixed-line traverse except the rope moves with the climbers.

runout

The term for being far above your last piece of protection.

RURP

The 'Realised Ultimate Reality Piton' (RURP) is a piece of protection used in aid climbing. No bigger than a large postage stamp, a RURP can be hammered into tiny hairline cracks. Although some free climbers have utilised these wacky pegs for protection they are mainly used for direct aid.

S回到顶部

S闪攀

一种攀登类型。在地面观察线路和/或获得攀爬信息后,第一次尝试即完攀了线路。

S上升(沿绳上升)

使用特定器械攀爬绳子以提升高度。

S上升器

用来沿绳上升使用的抓绳器械。

S深水攀石(DWS)

在较深的水域上方无保护攀登。完攀后可从岩壁顶端离开,但更常见的结局是脱落并坠落水中。也被称为psico bloc。

S绳环

绳子弯曲形成的绳环或U形。

S绳降

攀岩者使用增加摩擦力的装置(下降器或保护器)沿固定绳索下降。亦称下降,见下降

S石堆路标

人工叠放在一起的石头或木块,用于在野外标示路径。

S石笋

一种突出的小型岩石结构。

S石塔

常见于山脊的尖顶或孤立的岩石塔。

S手式上升器

  • 一种用于沿绳上升的机械上升器。

  • 借助上升器沿绳上升。

S双绳

半绳

S双套结

一种将绳子固定在钩环上的半扣(绳结)。即使承受过很大拉力,只要把半扣的一部分从钩环上滑出,双套结即可自动解开。常用于使用攀岩绳连接自己和保护站。

S四字动作

起源于攀冰的攀登技术动作,攀爬者一只手抓握岩点或冰镐,把对侧的腿挂于这条手臂上以提升身体高度并伸出另一只手/镐寻找支点。因身体姿态形似阿拉伯数字4而得名。

S锁膝(膝顶)

Locking the lower half of your leg in a gap by pressing with the knee and pushing with the foot against two opposing rock features.

saddle

A high pass between two peaks, larger than a col.

sandbag

  • Consciously mis-representing the difficulty of a route, claiming that it is easier than it actually is.

  • A route of substantially elevated difficulty in comparison to others of the same grade.

scramble

Easy unprotected climbing.

scree

Small, loose, broken rocks, often at the base of a cliff; also any area or slope covered in such rocks. Scree is distinguished from talus by its smaller size and looser configuration.

second

  • A climber who follows the lead, or first, climber.

  • To second: ascending a route as second

self-arrest

The act of planting the pick of an ice axe into the snow to arrest a fall in the event of a slip. Also a method of stopping in a controlled glissade.

semi hanging belay

A belay stand or anchor, typically on multi-pitch climbs, that requires the climbers to have part of their weight held by their harness due to the lack of a comfortable belay stand (like a ledge). These are less comfortable than regular belay stands but more comfortable than hanging belays.

send

A type of ascent. To cleanly complete a route, i.e. on-sight, flash, or redpoint. See also ‘scend.

shindex

The 'Shindex' is the distance between your big toe and the top of your knee. It is the range between as short as you can make your foot to as far as you can extend your toe and is important in placing kneebars.

shock load

A force exerted on an anchor when weight is suddenly dropped onto it.

sidepull

Method for gripping a vertical edge that entails pulling with the hand and pushing with the feet.

simultaneous climbing / simul climbing

A climbing technique in which two climbers move simultaneously upward, with the leader placing protection which the second removes as they advance. Sometimes used in multi-pitch climbing to climb faster, obviously mostly on easier terrain.

simultaneous rappel / simul rappel

A rappel technique in which both climbers descend the same rope (or the strands of the rope) at the same time. While often used to safe time, simu rappelling ads a lot of risk to the rappelling. Also used in some rare settings like lowering from a single pitch spire without anchors whereas the climbers lower off on opposite sides of the spire.

single rope

A single climbing rope used to clip all pieces of gear to. This is the type of rope normally used for sport and single pitch climbing. See also half and twin ropes.

sit start

Starting a climb from a position in which the climber is sitting on the floor. Typically used for boulder routes to add additional difficulty. Often abbreviated by 'SD' or 'SS'.

sky hook

An aid climbing device for progression or positioning made of a metal hook and a sling. It can be hooked on a variety of rock features (like flakes) and holes.

slab

A rock face that is at an angle less steep than vertical. Typically requires balance- and friction-dependent moves.

SLCD

A spring-loaded device used as protection in traditional climbing, see also cam or friend.

sling

A sling or runner is an item of climbing equipment consisting of a tied or sewn loop of webbing. These can be wrapped around sections of rock, hitched to other pieces of equipment, or tied directly to a tensioned line using a prusik knot.

sloper

A hold or part of a hold in which the surface slopes down toward the ground, with very little positive surface.

smearing

A foot move that relies purely on the friction of the rubber of the climbing shoes.

spindrift

Loose, powdery snow incapable of holding protection.

splitter crack

A splitter crack is a crack that is relatively unfeatured and very regular, as if the cliff just split right down the middle. It is often used to describe a smaller crack. Splitters are generally coveted by crack climbers for their sweet and consistent jams they offer.

spotting

A method of protection commonly used when bouldering or before the leader has placed a piece of protection in climbing. One or multiple spotters stand beneath the climber, ready to absorb the energy of a fall and direct the climber away from any hazards.

spur

  • A rock or snow rib on a mountain, a lateral ridge.

  • Heel-side extra spike at crampons.

static move

A static move is a climbing movement of a limb to a new hold without the simultaneous transfer of weight. Instead weight transfer occurs after the limb has moved. See also dynamic move.

static rope

Static ropes are ropes with very low-elongation, typically less than 5%. They are typically used for work where rope stretching is a disadvantage like rescue work, caving, climbing fixed lines with ascenders and hauling loads.

stem

To bridge the distance between two holds with one’s feet, to push against adjacent or opposing walls with the feet as one might do in a chimney.

stick clip

A specialized pole for placing a quickdraw (usually with the rope pre-clipped) into the first or subsequently higher bolts of a sport climb.

T回到顶部

T套结/雀爪结

将绳环尾段反压在绳环上形成半扣,通常用于连接锚点、连接多个绳圈、或把挽索连接到安全带上。

T天然岩塞

自然形成的,紧紧卡在岩壁缝里的浮石。

T铜头岩塞

一种由软金属与钢缆组合而成的小型块塞,头部通常位铜、铜合金或铝制,常用于器械攀登。铜头岩塞通常适用于细小的浅缝,放置时需使用岩锤敲击铜头,使软金属头变形“嵌入”岩壁缝隙中。软金属的延展性使铜头岩塞比其他类型的岩塞更贴合岩壁,并能承受更多的拉力,在一些高难度器械攀登中,铜头岩塞是唯一适用的保护装置。另见Bashie塞

T兔耳结

有两个绳环的八字结,通常使用钩环把两个绳环分别挂入两个保护点以固定绳索。

T凸轮塞

通过弹簧联动偏心凸轮的装置,被安放在石缝中以用作保护点,常见于传统攀登。另见Friend机械塞

T腿环

攀登安全带中穿在腿上的部件

T拖吊包

拖吊包是一种大而结实,甚至笨重的专用包,用于携带攀登装备和补给品。在大岩壁攀登中,通常用拖吊包将装备和补给等物资拖上岩壁。由于其笨重的特性,拖吊包常被昵称为“猪”。

take

Called out by a climber when requesting that the belayer remove all slack.

talus

An accumulation of rock larger than scree that has fallen to its location. The presence and amount of talus should be considered when crossing a slope or climbing the pitch above it.

taping

Applying adhesive tape to fingers and back of hands to prevent injuries.

team free

A type of ascent for multi-pitch routes. One of the rope team members leads a pitch, while the other climbs by any means (also technical climbing or ascenders are allowed). The lead climber can change, so that the members of the rope team have made a common red point ascent, so to speak.

thin hands

A crack the size that's wider than off-fingers but narrower than a perfect hand jam.

thread

An either natural or drilled rock-channel that can be used to thread a sling or rope through it. It can be used as protection point or belay point. Often encountered and used in tufa-rich limestone crags.

tick

Ascending a route and / or the act of recording the ascent of a route. See also the list of tick types.

tick mark

A mark on the rock to identify a hold or foot hold. Typically done using chalk. Should be brushed off after you have finished climbing.

top-out

Completing a route by ascending over the top of the structure being climbed. Often used in bouldering but also in sport or trad climbing when the terrain permits it.

trad

  • A person who adheres to the principles of traditional climbing: to place and remove the protection used on a climb, to use no device or technique that will scar the rock or mountain.

  • An abbreviation for 'traditional' as an adjective, e.g. 'trad gear' or 'a trad climb'.

traditional climbing

A climbing style. Traditional or trad climbing involves climbing routes in which removable protection against falls is placed by the climber while ascending.

tramming / trolleying

A technique that is typically used while lowering and cleaning gear from an overhanging and/or traversing route. A quickdraw is clipped between the climber's harness and the rope that is threaded through the gear. As the climber is lowered by the belayer, the quickdraw holds the cleaner close to the wall and follows the line of the route.

traverse

  • Moving laterally over a section of rock during a climb.

  • A section of a route or a complete route that requires progress in a horizontal direction.

tufa

A limestone formation formed by the evaporation of (dripping) water on the rock surface (often in the shape of a rib that protrudes or even hangs freely from the wall). Often encountered in limestone caves and on overhanging rock faces.

twin rope

As the name says twin ropes are two ropes (typically of lesser diameter) that are used just like a single rope. Meaning the climber ties in to both ropes and clips both ropes on the same protection points. Often used in multi-pitch climbing as it allows for longer rappels. See also half and single rope.

U回到顶部

udge

A technique needed to make slow upwards progress on holdless rock, especially off-width cracks.

UIAA

undercling also undercut

A hold which is gripped with the palm of the hand facing upwards.

upgrading

The fact of changing the grade of a route from an easier one to a harder one. Typically done by repeaters of a route or when eg a critical hold broke on a route.

V回到顶部

V-grade

A technical grading system for bouldering problems, invented by John Sherman.

V-thread also Abalakov thread

A type of abseiling point used especially in winter and in ice climbing.

V型岩钉

两面的夹角为直角或锐角的金属岩钉,适用于拳缝到指缝宽度的岩缝。大尺寸的称为bong,小尺寸的称为baby angle。

victory whip

A voluntary fall from the anchor after a successful sent of a route. Typically the climber touches the anchor / chain (as if clipping it) and without clipping jumps off.

volume

A large, hollow, bolted-on bouldering hold for indoor / gym climbing.

W回到顶部

W威克攀石难度体系

亦称为抱石V字难度体系,由攀岩者约翰•舍曼发明,是美洲通用的攀石难度标准。

W握点

同“锥点”,一种岩点,可用开放手型握在其上(例如突出的钟乳或石角)。

W误触

打卡类型的一种,指在完成攀石线路的过程中轻轻触及地面或其他人。

W五字动作

一种相当奇特的攀岩攀冰动作,类似四字动作,但把腿挂在同侧手臂上。

water knot

A knot used to tie lengths of webbing together or into slings.

webbing

Flat nylon tape or tubing used for slings and harnesses.

whipper

A lead fall from above and to the side of the last clip, whipping oneself downwards and in an arc. The term has come to denote any fall beyond the last placed or clipped piece of protection.

wire

Another term for nut, used as protection device for traditional climbing. See also hex or nut.

woodie

A homemade climbing wall. Often specifically a hybrid between a climbing wall and a fingerboard. Specifically called such because of the wooden panels (usually left unpainted) used to attach the climbing holds.

X回到顶部

X下撤

半途中止攀登并撤退。

X下放(下放锚点)

  • 由保护员控制绳索,使攀爬者下放。与攀爬者自主下降相对。

  • 一种可以把绳子挂入或穿入的锚点。挂入或传入绳索后,使保护员即可以下放攀爬者。

X下降

使用下降器连接绳索————或将绳子以特定方式缠绕在身体上(传统绳降)————沿绳下降。亦称绳降,见绳降.

X下攀

向下攀爬线路需要更多技巧,因此下攀对攀爬者和保护员而言都是有益的练习。从数据上来说,下攀比绳降更安全,因此,在时间允许的情况下,攀爬者会选择下攀一些线路。

X下推动作

翻上石台等上方无可用手点的岩壁造型时常用的技术。与常见的抓住手点并下拉发力的攀岩动作不同,攀岩者须用手压住平台或造型的上表面并推高身体。在攀冰中,攀登者须手握冰镐头而不是冰镐手柄,以完成向下推的动作。

X下移保护(确保)

一种降低冲坠系数的保护方法。在多段攀登中,领攀者离开保护站后,如果在挂入第一个保护点之前脱落,会形成冲坠系数很高的坠落。为降低此类坠落的冲坠系数,保护员增加的自保护的长度,下降一定距离后在保护站的下方提供保护(以增加系统内参与缓冲的绳长)。保护站由此成为领攀者攀登下一段时的第一个挂入的保护点。

X先锋攀登

带头攀登一段线路,必要时须在攀爬过程中放置保护点,搭档从下方操作绳索提供保护。亦称“领攀”、“下方保护攀登”。

X悬挂保护

常见于多段攀登的一种保护站,由于没有舒适的立足点(例如平台)而导致保护员只能悬空挂在岩壁上。相比半悬挂保护或常规保护站,悬挂保护较不舒适,并需要更好的绳索管理能力。

X雪冰

压实并再次结冰的旧雪,常见于春天。

X雪沟

山体上的沟壑,有时是潜在的攀登路线。雪沟过于陡峭的话有可能出现落石或落冰。

X雪锚

埋在雪中以作为锚点的任何装置(雪桩、铲子、甚至一袋雪)。

X雪檐

高山山脊上向一侧水平突出的雪层。

xeno

A hold appearing to be composed of a different type of rock than the surrounding rock face.

Y回到顶部

Y箭簇形岩钉

一种形如箭簇的岩钉,适用于宽至指尖厚度,窄至几毫米的裂缝。

Y垭口

形似马鞍的地貌,亦称隘口。

Y烟囱

  • 宽到足以让攀登者的身体完全进入的平行裂缝。攀登烟囱时,攀登者通常使用头、后背和双脚抵住裂缝的两壁。

  • 使用相应技术攀爬烟囱缝。

Y烟囱缝

宽到足以让攀登者的身体完全进入的平行裂缝,裂缝两壁的间距决定了适用的攀登技巧。

Y岩点(支点)

攀登过程中用于临时抓握、推压或站立的岩石造型。

Y岩钩

天钩

Y岩馆攀岩

在室内攀爬人造攀岩墙。见攀岩入门

Y岩面攀爬

在陡峭的石壁上,利用岩面造型向上攀登,与裂缝攀登相对。

Y岩片

一种薄的片状岩石结构,通常与主岩面略微分离。

Y液体镁粉

液体镁粉由攀岩镁粉和挥发性液体(通常是酒精)混合而成,又有时也包含其他添加剂。把液体镁粉倒在手上并轻轻搓匀,20-60秒后即可在皮肤表面形成均匀的镁粉层。液体镁粉因其产生的浮尘更少而受到一些攀岩者的青睐。

Y遗弃装备

在线路上发现的被遗弃装备,通常归发现并回收者所有。

Y尤班克(Ewbanks)

  • 约翰•尤班克(John Ewbank,1948~2013),澳大利亚攀岩家,澳洲Ewbanks攀岩难度体系的发明人。

  • Ewbanks体系:约翰•尤班克发明的攀岩难度体系,在澳洲被广泛使用。

Y渔人结

用于连接细绳的绳结,可用于制作绳圈。较粗的绳子通常使用八字结连接以避免绳子挂在岩缝里。

Y预演后完攀

经过(顶绳攀登等手段)预演后,先锋攀登并完成(通常较为危险的)传统攀登线路。

Y圆石

在攀岩领域,大圆石通常指体积大到可供人类攀登的单体巨石。

Y猿指数

臂展与身高的比例:平伸双臂时手指可触摸到的最远距离除以身高。一些攀岩者认为该比例大于一(即臂展长于身高)会带来攀岩时的优势。

YDS

Abbreviation for Yosemite Decimal System, a grading system.

yo-yo style

A type of ascent in which you lead a climb until you fall. After the fall you lower to the ground or the last no-hands rest and start to climb again, leaving the rope in the last protection point. This ascent style has its origin in the US and is now rarely used. Also called 'red circle' (Rotkreis). Compare also to 'all free' and 'Ground up red point'.

Yosemite/Tahquitz Decimal System

An evolving system to define route difficulty numerically with fine definitions within Class 5. The system bears the names of where it developed in the 1950s.

Z回到顶部

Z-clipping

Clipping into a piece of protection with the segment of rope from beneath the previous piece of protection, resulting in a potentially dangerous tangled configuration of the belay rope without the possibility to move further up. May happen on closely protected routes.

Z-piton

A Z-shaped piton or peg with supposedly higher holding power. Also called Leeper-peg after Ed Leeper.

Z-pulley also Z-system.

A particular configuration of rope, anchors, and pulleys typically used to extricate a climber after falling into a crevasse.

Z凿点

使用锤击、钻孔或安装人造岩点的方式,改造天然岩壁以增加支点或降低攀登难度。在部分地区一度流行此类做法,但当今攀岩界普遍认为此行为是不道德且不可接受的。

Z涨(裂缝攀爬技术)

将手指、手掌、脚等身体部位塞入裂缝中,适当扭转以紧密接触裂缝,实现抓点或踩点的效果。裂缝攀登技术和常见的岩面攀登技术相去甚远。且因为人工攀岩馆通常没有或仅有少数裂缝线路,攀岩者通常需要在自然岩壁上练习裂缝攀登。一旦掌握后,涨手涨脚将成为攀登裂缝的首选技术。

Z掌缝

可伸入整个手掌的岩缝,但裂缝宽度窄于拳缝。

Z涨手

攀登掌缝时使用的涨手技巧,将手掌伸入缝中弓成杯状以卡住裂缝两壁。

Z涨指

在裂缝中通过弯曲手指等动作实现的涨手技术,有多种涨指技术以适用于不同宽度的裂缝。

Z折膝

一种在侧拉点上降低手臂压力的攀爬技巧。扭转一条腿,将膝盖转向更低的位置,带动身体旋转,直至躯干面向另一条腿的方向。这个技巧可以使攀爬者的身体和肩膀向下一个支点的方向旋转,以获取更大的动作跨度。

Z指缝

宽度仅能容纳手指的裂缝,深度从仅可放入指尖到能够伸入多个指节不等。

Z直角岩锥

见“Z形岩锥”

Z指力板

用于提高手指力量和耐力的造型板,多为木质或树脂材质。亦有适用于在岩场热身或旅途中训练使用的便携版本。

Z指力条(campus board)

固定在外倾表面上的一系列水平木条,用于训练仅用上肢攀爬的能力。使用得当的话可以提高指力和手指爆发力。

Z装备

攀登装备的统称。

Z装备环

安全带上用于存放装备的绳环。

Z坠地

攀爬时脱落并触及地面。

Z坠落系数

表示坠落严重程度的数字,通过公示计算得出:将坠落的高度除以参与缓冲的绳索长度。

Z坠落线

潜在的坠落方向。保护站和保护的位置须与坠落线对齐,以防止钟摆效应。攀登时需避开更高处的攀登者的坠落线。穿越冰川时,应远离之前崩落在冰川上的碎石区。

Z自由独攀

一种攀登方式:无保护的自由攀登(见自由攀登)。

Z自由攀登

只使用手脚攀登,不借助器材辅助爬升,但可以使用绳索保护坠落。与器械攀登相对。

Credits回到顶部

We thank our partner GoToClimb for the initial contribution of climbing terms.

评价并分享这篇文章回到顶部

本页信息有帮助吗?请打分 

分享至

Deutsch English Español Français Italiano 한국어 Português 中文